Typical mill additions to enamels and their function

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Mill addition Function
Aerosil Set-up
Aluminium oxide Matting agent and to increase heat resistance of ground coat
Aluminium hydroxide Equivalent to aluminium oxide
Aluminium powder Increase heat resistance in ground coat
Antimony trioxide Increase adherence of ground coat
Barium chloride Set-up in cover coat
Barium carbonate Set-up in cover coat
Bentonite Set-up
Borax Set-up in ground coat
Boric acid Set-up
Cadmium oxide Stabilize Cd-Se red enamels
Clay Provide bubble structure
Cupric chloride Self lustre enamel 1118
EK-1000 For continuous clean enamel
Feldspar For ground coat
Gumst Increase filmstrength
Magnesium chloride Set-up cover coat
Magnesium nitrate to increase suspension and to prevent fishscales
Opacifier UV Opacifier
Potash Set-up
Potassium choride Set-up cover coat
Potassium nitrate Oxidizing agent for aluminium enamels
Quartz to increase firing range and matting agent
Silicic acid Set-up
Silver sand For heat resistant ground coat
Soda ash Set-up in ground coat
Sodium aluminate Set-up in cover coat
Sodium nitrite Set-up in ground coat
Sodium pyrophosphate To decrease set-up
Sodium silico fluoride Set-up cover coat
Tinoxide Opacifier
Titanium dioxide Opacifier
Trisodium phosphate To prevent rusting in cast iron ground coat
Urea To prevent hairlines in cover coat
Zirconite Opacifier
Zircon oxide Opacifier


  • Ronald Ditmer

    Ronald Ditmer is the founder and managing director of Ditmer Trading & Consulting BV. Involved in the vitreous enameling industry since 1984 and specialized in setting-up complete enameling plants, designing enameling equipment and troubleshooting enameling processes & equipment.

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